NOAA: Giants of Science: C. S. Peirce
The bulk of Peirce's scientific work was accomplished during his years with the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey between the years 1859 and 1891 although he remained active in the philosophical and scientific realm right up until his death in 1914. To give an idea of Peirce's scope of inquiry during his lifetime, he listed the following as his principal areas of research for Cattell's American Men of Science for 1906: "Logic, especially logic of relations, probabilities, theory of inductive and abductive validity; epistemology; metrology; history of science; multiple algebra; doctrine of multitudes; gravity; wavelengths; phonetics of Elizabethan English; great men; ethics; phaneroscopy; cosmology; experimental psychology; physical geometry. -- Foundations of mathematics; classification of science; code of terminology; topical geometry.">It's really baffling that Peirce is not acknowledged as the towering intellectual force he actually was. Even American/analytic philosophers, who typically hyperventilate over any philosopher with actual mathematical or scientific bona fides, typically ignore (and, in fact, remain largely ignorant of) Peirce's accomplishments.